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法律龙8娱乐官网手机版下载安装:中华人民共和国民法通则 15

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第五章 民事权利 第二节 债权
Section 2 Creditors' Rights

第八十四条 债是按照合同的约定或者依照法律的规定,在当事人之间产生的特定的权利和义务关系,享有权利的人是债权人,负有义务的人是债务人。
Article 84 A debt represents a special relationship of rights and obligations established between the parties concerned, either according to the agreed terms of a contract or legal provisions. The party entitled to the rights shall be the creditor, and the party assuming the obligations shall be the debtor.

债权人有权要求债务人按照合同的约定或者依照法律的规定履行义务。
The creditor shall have the right to demand that the debtor fulfil his obligations as specified by the contract or according to legal provisions.

第八十五条 合同是当事人之间设立、变更、终止民事关系的协议。依法成立的合同,受法律保护。
Article 85 A contract shall be an agreement whereby the parties establish, change or terminate their civil relationship. Lawfully established contracts shall be protected by law.

第八十六条 债权人为二人以上的,按照确定的份额分享权利。债务人为二人以上的,按照确定的份额分担义务。
Article 86 When there are two or more creditors to a deal, each creditor shall be entitled to rights in proportion to his proper share of the credit. When there are two or more debtors to a deal, each debtor shall assume obligations in proportion to his share of the debt.

第八十七条 债权人或者债务人一方人数为二人以上的,依照法律的规定或者当事人的约定,享有连带权利的每个债权人,都有权要求债务人履行义务;负有连带义务的每个债务人,都负有清偿全部债务的义务,履行了义务的人,有权要求其他负有连带义务的人偿付他应当承担的份额。
Article 87 When there are two or more creditors or debtors to a deal, each of the joint creditors shall be entitled to demand that the debtor fulfil his obligations, in accordance with legal provisions or the agreement between the parties; each of the joint debtors shall be obliged to perform the entire debt, and the debtor who performs the entire debt shall be entitled to ask the other joint debtors to reimburse him for their shares of the debt.

第八十八条 合同的当事人应当按照合同的约定,全部履行自己的义务。
Article 88 The parties to a contract shall fully fulfil their obligations pursuant to the terms of the contract.

合同中有关质量、期限、地点或者价款约定不明确,按照合同有关条款内容不能确定,当事人又不能通过协商达成协议的,适用下列规定:
If a contract contains ambiguous terms regarding quality, time limit for performance, place of performance, or price, and the intended meaning cannot be determined from the context of relevant terms in the contract, and if the parties cannot reach an agreement through consultation, the provisions below shall apply:

(一)质量要求不明确的,按照国家质量标准履行,没有国家质量标准的,按照通常标准履行。
(1) If quality requirements are unclear, state quality standards shall apply; if there are no state quality standards, generally held standards shall apply.

(二)履行期限不明确的,债务人可以随时向债权人履行义务,债权人也可以随时要求债务人履行义务,但应当给对方必要的准备时间。
(2) If the time limit for performance is unclear, the debtor may at his convenience fulfill his obligations towards the creditor; the creditor may also demand at any time that the debtor perform his obligations, but sufficient notice shall be given to the debtor.

(三)履行地点不明确,给付货币的,在接受给付一方的所在地履行,其他标的在履行义务一方的所在地履行。
(3) If the place of performance is unclear, and the payment is money, the performance shall be effected at the seat or place of residence of the party receiving the payment; if the payment is other than money, the performance shall be effected at the seat or place of residence of the party fulfilling the obligations.

(四)价款约定不明确的,按照国家规定的价格履行;没有国家规定价格的,参照市场价格或者同类物品的价格或者同类劳务的报酬标准履行。
(4) If the price agreed by the parties is unclear, the state-fixed price shall apply. If there is no state-fixed price, the price shall be based on market price or the price of a similar article or remuneration for a similar service.

合同对专利申请权没有约定的,完成发明创造的当事人享有申请权。
If the contract does not contain an agreed term regarding rights to patent application, any party who has completed an invention-creation shall have the right to apply for a patent.

合同对科技成果的使用权没有约定的,当事人都有使用的权利。
If the contract does not contain an agreed term regarding rights to patent application, and technological research achievements, the parties shall all have the right to use such achievements.

第八十九条 依照法律的规定或者按照当事人的约定,可以采用下列方式担保债务的履行:
Article 89 In accordance with legal provisions the agreement between the parties on the performance of a debt may be guaranteed using the methods below:

(一)保证人向债权人保证债务人履行债务,债务人不履行债务的,按照约定由保证人履行或者承担连带责任;保证人履行债务后,有权向债务人追偿。
(1) A guarantor may guarantee to the creditor that the debtor shall perform his debt. If the debtor defaults, the guarantor shall perform the debt or bear joint liability according to agreement. After performing the debt, the guarantor shall have the right to claim repayment from the debtor.

(二)债务人或者第三人可以提供一定的财产作为抵押物。
(2) The debtor or a third party may offer a specific property as a pledge.

债务人不履行债务的,债权人有权依照法律的规定以抵押物折价或者以变卖抵押物的价款优先得到偿还。
If the debtor defaults, the creditors shall be entitled to keep the pledge to offset the debt or have priority in satisfying his claim out of the proceeds from the sale of the pledge pursuant to relevant legal provisions.

(三)当事人一方在法律规定的范围内可以向对方给付定金。债务人履行债务后,定金应当抵作价款或者收回。给付定金的一方不履行债务的,无权要求返还定金;接受定金的一方不履行债务的,应当双倍返还定金。
(3) Within the limits of relevant legal provisions, a party may leave a deposit with the other party. After the debtor has discharged his debt, the deposit shall either be retained as partial payment of the debt or be returned. If the party who leaves the deposit defaults, he shall not be entitled to demand the return of the deposit; if the party who accepts the deposit defaults, he shall repay the deposit in double.

(四)按照合同约定一方占有对方的财产,对方不按照合同给付应付款项超过约定期限的,占有人有权留置该财产,依照法律的规定以留置财产折价或者以变卖该财产的价款优先得到偿还。
(4) If a party has possession of the other party's property according to contract and the other party violates the contract by failing to pay a required sum of money within the specified time limit, the possessor shall have a lien on the property and may keep the retained property to offset the debt or have priority in satisfying his claim out of the proceeds from the sale of the property pursuant to relevant legal provisions.

第九十条 合法的借贷关系受法律保护。
Article 90 Legitimate loan relationships shall be protected by law.

第九十一条 合同一方将合同的权利、义务全部或者部分转让给第三人的,应当取得合同另一方的同意,并不得牟利。依照法律规定应当由国家批准的合同,需经原批准机关批准。但是,法律另有规定或者原合同另有约定的除外。
Article 91 If a party to a contract transfers all or part of his contractual rights or obligations to a third party, he shall obtain the other party's consent and may not seek profits therefrom. Contracts which according to legal provisions are subject to state approval, such as transfers, must be approved by the authority that originally approved the contract, unless the law or the original contract stipulates otherwise.

第九十二条 没有合法根据,取得不当利益,造成他人损失的,应当将取得的不当利益返还受损失的人。
Article 92 If profits are acquired improperly and without a lawful basis, resulting in another person's loss, the illegal profits shall be returned to the person who suffered the loss.

第九十三条 没有法定的或者约定的义务,为避免他人利益受损失进行管理或者服务的,有权要求受益人偿付由此而支付的必要费用。
Article 93 If a person acts as manager or provides services in order to protect another person's interests when he is not legally or contractually obligated to do so, he shall be entitled to claim from the beneficiary the expenses necessary for such assistance.

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proportion [prə'pɔ:ʃən]
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n. 比例,均衡,部份,(复)体积,规模
vt
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specific [spi'sifik]
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adj. 特殊的,明确的,具有特效的
n. 特
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illegal [i'li:gəl]
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adj. 不合法的,非法的
n. 非法移民
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sufficient [sə'fiʃənt]
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adj. 足够的,充分的
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possession [pə'zeʃən]
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n. 财产,所有,拥有
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reimburse [.ri:im'bə:s]
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vt. 偿还,报销
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claim [kleim]
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n. 要求,要求权;主张,断言,声称;要求物
 
authority [ə'θɔ:riti]
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n. 权力,权威,职权,官方,当局
 
unclear
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adj. 不清楚的;不易了解的
 
perform [pə'fɔ:m]
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v. 执行,运转,举行,表演
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